Post-traumatic stress disorder burden among female Syrian war refugees is associated with dysmenorrhea severity but not with the analgesics
Omar Gammoh 1 * , Hannah Durand 2 , Hanan Abu-Shaikh 3 , Mervat Alsous 1
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1 Department of Clinical Pharmacy and Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, Yarmouk University, Irbid, JORDAN2 Division of Psychology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, SCOTLAND3 Prince Hamza Hospital, Amman, JORDAN* Corresponding Author


Dysmenorrhea association with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has not been studied in refugees. We aimed to examine the associations between dysmenorrhea severity, dysmenorrhea analgesics self-medications, and PTSD in a cohort of Syrian war refugees residing in Jordan.
This is a cross-sectional study based on predetermined inclusion criteria held at Caritas primary care centers in Jordanian districts between September and October 2022. The participants’ demographics and analgesic self-medication type were recorded through a structured questionnaire. The dysmenorrhea severity was measured by (working ability, location, intensity, days of pain, and dysmenorrhea) WaLiDD scale, PTSD was measured by Davidson trauma scale (DTS)-DSM-IV.
Data from 347 Syrian female war refugees were analyzed. The multivariate analysis showed that dysmenorrhea severity demonstrated significantly higher estimates for PTSD (10.48 [6.72-14.23], p=0.001), however, the analgesic type was not associated with PTSD burden.
In conclusion, dysmenorrhea severity, but not self-medication, was associated with a higher PTSD burden.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article Type: Original Article

ELECTRON J GEN MED, 2023, Volume 20, Issue 4, Article No: em485

Publication date: 01 Jul 2023

Online publication date: 16 Mar 2023

Article Views: 996

Article Downloads: 852

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