Oropharyngeal microbiome composition as a possible diagnostic marker for true psychosis in a forensic psychiatric setting: A narrative literature review and an opinion
Mohsen Khosravi 1 * , Domenico De Berardis 2 , Sakineh Mazloom 3 , Amir Adibi 4 , Negin Javan 5 , Zahra Ghiasi 1 , Mohammad Nafeli 1 , Negar Rahmanian 1
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1 Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Zahedan University of Medical Sciences, Zahedan, IRAN2 Mental Health Center of Giulianova, Teramo, ITALY3 Department of Nursing, Zahedan Branch, Islamic Azad University, Zahedan, IRAN4 Department of Psychiatry, School of Medicine, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam, IRAN5 Department of Psychology, Yadegar-e-Imam Khomeini (RAH), Shahre Rey Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, IRAN* Corresponding Author


The malingered psychosis has increasingly occurred over the past few years due to the tendency towards care in the community and the closures of long-stay psychiatric institutions. Thus, it is required to identify malingered psychosis to reach accurate forensic assessments and inhibit misuse of restricted healthcare resources and miscarriages of justice. Despite the fact that some practical psychometric tools and strategies have been proposed for diagnosing true psychosis over the past decades, the differentiation between true psychosis and malingered psychosis is still sometimes challenging. Accordingly, it seems crucial to identify innovative and reliable diagnostic alternatives. Hence, the present article summarizes a collection of evidence that can be used by researchers to improve future assessment of oropharyngeal microbiome composition as a feasible diagnostic marker for true psychosis in a forensic psychiatric setting.


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Article Type: Review Article

ELECTRON J GEN MED, 2023, Volume 20, Issue 4, Article No: em486


Publication date: 01 Jul 2023

Online publication date: 17 Mar 2023

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