Purpose: This review features a generalized overview of dengue outbreaks, dengue pathogenesis, symptoms, immune response, diagnosis methods and preventive measures which facilitates the better understanding of the global expansion and concerns relating to the disease.
Recent Findings: A recent study showed that natural killer cells of the infected person become activated soon after the infection which may help in treatment and vaccine development. A research team has also produced synthetically engineered mosquitoes that can prevent the transmission and dissemination of the dengue virus by the activation of an antibody. Furthermore, a mutation in the protein envelope of the dengue virus leads to variation in shapes, developing resistance towards the vaccine.
Summary: The increasing number of reported cases indicated the worldwide distribution of the mosquito vectors, which was further facilitated by the growth in the shipping and commerce industries. The immune system, through activation of the innate and adaptive immune responses, facilitates the recruitment of an array of leukocytes which help neutralize the virus. However, the 4 different viral serotypes increases the risk of a life-threatening secondary infection due to the varying serotypes. Apart from the laboratory standard PRNT method, several other dengue detection methods such as ELISA, RT-LAMP and several optical, microfluidic and electrochemical methods have been developed. Since Dengvaxia® (CYD-TDV) has its own set of drawbacks and limitations, several companies have been investing for the production of more potential vaccines that are currently in trial.