Anomalous systemic venous return (AVSR) may sometimes present as pathologic entities itself, or associated with other congenital heart defects. The presence of AVSR may require significant changes in surgical technique during the repair of congenital heart defects. The aim of our study was to assess the prevalence of anomalous systemic venous return and to determine the congenital heart anomalies accompanying AVSR in children. This study is based on a retrospective review of the medical records of 175 children who consecutively underwent cardiac catheterisation because that congenital heart disease. The most extensively diagnosed cardiac malformation was VSD (26.8%). ASVR was prevalent in 4.5% of patients. The most commonly diagnosed ASVR was persistent left superior vena cava (3.4%) and a second ASVR type was associated interruption of the inferior vena cava (IVC) with azygos vein continuation (1.1%). A systematic study of systemic venous connections should be performed in all those undergoing cardiac catheterisation as a prelude to open heart repair because it may require significant changes in surgical technique during the repair.