Background & Purpose:
Recurrent and chronic infections of the ear, throat and nose are one of the most important health problems worldwide, and they clearly affect the quality of life in adults and children. In spite of proper diagnosis and proper treatment, groups of these patients do not respond to routine treatment and are still being symptomatic and have chronic complications in these patients. Various studies have shown that the immune system is defective in some patients with frequent and chronic infections of the ear, throat and nose. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate the relative frequency of primary immunodeficiency diseases in children with sinusitis and recurrent middle ear infections.
Methods & Materials:
This study evaluated underlying immune defects in patients with otitis media or recurrent sinusitis. Serum levels of IgA, IgG and IgM were evaluated by nephlometric test. In addition, a complete count of blood cells was also evaluated. The rate of humoral response to diphtheria and tetanus was also assessed. NBT was used to evaluate the immune system.
Out of 62 patients, 12 patients (19%) had defects in at least one antibody class. Five patients with IgA deficiency (which 2 of them have also showed IgG concurrent deficiency) were seen. Also, 4 patients had IgG deficiency and 3 patients showed IgM deficiency. None of the patients had abnormal cell count. NBT response was also normal in all patients.
In general, the findings of the present study in line with previous studies showed that a large proportion of children with recurrent otitis media and sinusitis have abnormal immunologic function. Therefore, it is recommended that the evaluation of immune deficiency be considered in these patients.