Bacteriuria is common in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) and it may affect graft survival.
To describe the incidence, clinical manifestations and microbial susceptibility of the symptomatic (SB) and asymptomatic (AB) bacteriuria in KTR, and to define the initial empirical treatment.
Retrospective cohort study of all KTR<18 years with bacteriuria that were transplanted between January 2006 and December 2016. Clinical, demographic, laboratory characteristics and follow-up time were investigated. Bacteriuria was classified as either SB or AB. Statistical analysis was performed using Excel 2010 program.
20 kidney transplants were performed. The female/male ratio was approximately 2:1 and 45% of the patients had bacteriuria. Of the 55 bacteriuria episodes, 20 were symptomatic and 35 asymptomatic. The mean age of the patients was 10.7±4.7 years. The more frequent primary renal diseases were neurogenic bladder (44.4%), renal dysplasia (22.2%), nephronophthisis, vesicoureteral reflux and obstructive uropathy (11.1% each). The median number of episodes/patient was 3.9. The mean time to post-transplant presentation was <6 months in 25% of the cases, 6-12 months in 20% and >12 months in 54.5%. The median time between the transplantation and the first AB episode was 3 months, and between the first SB episode was 7 months. The symptoms found in patients with SB included fever (80%), hematuria (15%) and septic shock (5%). No patient died due to urinary tract infections (UTI), but 33.3% of the patients with bacteriuria required admission to intensive care units. The most frequent bacteria isolated was Escherichia coli (E.coli) (54.5%). Extended‐spectrum beta‐lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria was found in 20% of the isolates. When comparing SB and AB, E.coli was associated with SB (p=0.047 OR:1-9.9). All SB cases were verified in patients with neurogenic bladder (p=0.013).
The recognition of high incidence of ESBL producing bacteria- related to UTI in (children) KTR may be very important for decision on the use of antibiotics during post- transplantation period. In this case, the use of carbapenem and ciprofloxacin should be recommended as initial empiric treatment.