To investigate the frequency of converting a residency dissertation to a journal article in Turkey. To compare the different residency programs and their publications rates; to sub classify of dissertations according to sub-specialties. Ophthalmologists who graduated before 2010 conducted surveys. The surveys questions included graduation year, residency program, topic of the dissertations, type of the study (prospective, retrospective, or experimental), publication rate from the dissertations, and type of journal for published dissertations. Three-hundred-eight ophthalmologists conducted surveys. Fifty seven (18.5%) dissertations were published in SCI-Expanded Indexed journals (39 of them (23%) from the university hospital programs and 17 of them (13%) from state hospital programs (p=0.036)) and 97 of dissertations were published in national journals. 92 of 170 (54%) dissertations from the university based residency programs and 59 of 131 (45%) dissertations from the state hospital based residency programs were published in national journals or international journals indexed in the SCI-Expanded Index (p=0.17). A publication rate from dissertations was similar between big city university programs and small city university programs (23.3%; 22.6%). The most frequently studied topics of dissertations were cataract-refractive surgery (21.5%), followed by retina (21%), glaucoma (21%), cornea-anterior segment (19%), and strabismus (7%). Of the study design, 57% of them were prospective, 32% were retrospective, and 10.5% were experimental study. In this study, it seems to be that lesser than one fifth of Ophthalmology Residency dissertations in Turkey converted to journal articles in SCI-Expanded journals. It is obvious that the overall quality of the dissertations was inadequate to be published in indexed journals and it is necessary to take some measures to increase the scientific quality.