In this study, we report an extraordinary case in which a patient was diagnosed with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and simultaneous chronic lymphocytic leukemia. A 53-year-old male patient presented with hoarseness and a neck mass. Laryngeal examination revealed a lesion that had infiltrated the right band, cord, and ventricle, and the left cord and band. There were multiple bilateral lymphadenopathies in the supraclavicular, inguinal, and axillary regions, the largest of which was 4x4 cm. Following hematology consultation, a direct laryngoscopy and biopsy were performed. An excisional biopsy was taken from the neck mass. The postoperative histopathology reported an invasive squamous cell carcinoma in the larynx and a small B cell lymphoid leukemia in the neck. Following consultation with our oncology department, curative radiotherapy was applied to the neck region. Following this therapy, the mass was no longer detectable upon palpation, although no curative treatment was applied for leukemia. It is important to be aware that lymphadenopathy may be secondary to head or neck cancer or to a hematological malignancy. Thus, preoperative evaluation should be carefully performed, and hematological malignancy should be considered as a differential diagnosis when histopathologically evaluating neck dissection material.