Hydatid disease is a public health issue as it continues to produce substantial morbidity and mortality. The most common affected organ among adults is the liver and among children, is the lungs. Its treatment includes medical therapy, surgical intervention or percutaneous drainage. We aimed to identify the clinical, therapeutic and evolutionary features of hydatid cyst among adults and children.
We conducted a retrospective study including all patients hospitalized in Pediatric and Infectious disease department for hydatid cyst between 1990 and 2018.
Overall, we enrolled 71 patients, among whom 37 (52.1%) were male. The median age was 28 years [3-87years]. The revealing symptoms were fever in 19 cases (26.7%) and cough in 18 cases (25.3%). Hepatic hydatid cyst was the main site, noted in 45 cases (63.4%), among which adults represented 37 cases (52.1%). Hydatid serology was positive in 87.2% of the cases. The treatment was surgical and followed by medical treatment based on albendazole in 43 cases (60.5%). The median duration of treatment was 4 months [1-60 months]. The most common adverse reactions of albendazole were elevated hepatic enzymes and reversible alopecia noted in 7 (12.7%) and 5 cases (9%). The disease evolution was marked by the occurrence of recovery in 53 cases (74.7%).
Our study highlighted the burden of hydatid disease in our region, which remains endemic. It might be misdiagnosed since not only clinical symptoms are misleading, but also, imaging results can be concealing.