Aim: Chemotherapy-induced febrile neutropenia (FN) predisposes patients to life-threatening infections and typically requires hospitalization. Patients with profound neutropenia have increased risk of septicemia associated with significant morbidity. To provide the appropriate broad-spectrum antimicrobial cover, documentation of causative agents and their antimicrobial susceptibilities should be established in each hospital.
Methods: The goal of the present study was to investigate the causative microorganisms in 27 febrile neutropenic patients between January 2006 and December 2007.
Results: ln our hematology unit, among 122 febrile neutropenic episodes 57 isolates from cultures of febrile neutropenic patients, gram-negative bacteria was prevalent (45.6%). Among the gram-positives (%42.1% of isolates) coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) were the predominant bacteria (13/23) followed by Staphylococcus aureus (7/23). Escherichia coli (14/26) and Klebsiella spp. (7/26) were the most common species among 26 gram-negative bacteria.
Conclusion: The most important issue in febrile neutropenia is still a mortal situation in immunocompromised patients. So documentation of the flora in each unit would help to decide appropriate empirical therapy which is life saving.