The aim of this study is to examine the apoptotic effects of high-dose toluene on rat brain cortex and cerebellum tissues during the acute phase. Fourteen albino Wistar rats (180-200 g) were divided into two equal groups (n : 7). While Group I was used as a control group, Group II was applied to a high dose of toluene (5200 mg / kg / gavage). At the end of a three-hour experimental period brain tissue samples were taken from the killed animals and tissues were fixed in % 10 neutral formalin, then, embedded in paraffin and sectioned (thickness, 5 μm) to determine the immune reactivity of Bax, sections were stained immunohistochemically with avidin biotin-peroxidase method. At the same time the TUNEL method was used for detection of apoptosis in the brain cortex and cerebellum. As a result of the study, increased Bax immune reactivity was seen in the brain cortex (+++) and cerebellum (++++) of toluene treated rats compared to control. The numbers of TUNEL-positive cells were significantly higher in the cerebellum tissues of animals exposed to toluene than the control. Nevertheless there was not a significantly difference in terms of TUNEL positivity between the brain cortex of control and toluene exposed animals. As a result of this study it was shown that a high-dose of toluene can trigger apoptosis of the brain cortex and cerebellum in a very short period of time.