Echinococcosis or hydatid disease is caused by larvae of Echinococcus.
In the life cycle of E. granulosus, humans sometimes become accidental
intermediate hosts. Humans can orally take up the E. granulosus
eggs from infected carnivore excretions by handling the animals or
egg-containing feces, plants, eating vegetables, uncooked fruits, and
drinking water with the eggs. The hydatid disease is endemic in some
Mediterranean countries, the Middle East, the South America, the
South Africa and Oceania. Hydatid disease is seen in subjects of any
age and sex. The combination of imaging and serology usually enables
diagnosis. Clinical management of hepatic cysts includes albendazole
or mebendazole therapy in combination with either surgical resection
or the PAIR procedure.