Cardiovascular diseases and endothelial disfunction are major causes of mortality in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD). Treatment strategies like continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and hemodialysis (HD) have different effects on different parameters. Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an endogenous nitric oxide (NO) synthase inhibitor and it has been reported to be a novel marker for the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Homocysteine is believed to cause atherogenesis and thrombogenesis via endothelial damage, vascular smooth muscle proliferation and coagulation abnormalities. In previous studies, conflicting findings have been reported about the effect of HD and CAPD on oxidant and antioxidant systems. In this study, we aimed to investigate ADMA, homocysteine and C- reactive protein (CRP) levels in patients with ESRD having HD and CAPD treatment and healthy individuals. This study was performed on 44 (23M, 21F) CAPD patients, 26 (13M, 13F) HD patients and 29 (15M, 14F) age and sex matched healthy control subjects. The lipid profile, ADMA, homocysteine, arginine and CRP levels were measured. Serum ADMA, homocysteine and CRP levels of the ESRD patients were significantly higher, whereas serum arginine levels were significantly lower in both HD and CAPD patients compared to control subjects. No differences were found between serum ADMA, homocysteine and CRP levels of the CAPD and HD patients. Our results suggest that ADMA, homocysteine and CRP levels were increased in HD and CAPD patients compared to the control subjects. These findings suggest that ESRD patients are prone to inflammation, oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction. We conclude that endothelial dysfunction, inflammation and oxidative stress are increased in dialysis patients and ADMA concentrations are not affected by the modality of dialysis treatment.