A Proposed Framework Based on Literature Review of Online Contextual Mental Health Services to Enhance Wellbeing and Address Psychopathology During COVID-19
Ahmet Tanhan 1 2 * , K. Fatih Yavuz 3 4, J. Scott Young 5, Ahmet Nalbant 6, Gökmen Arslan 7, Murat Yıldırım 8 9, Sevinç Ulusoy 10, Emel Genç 11, Erol Uğur 12, İlhan Çiçek 13
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1 PhD, Adiyaman University, Department of Counseling, Adiyaman, TURKEY
2 Institute for Muslim Mental Health, Michigan, USA
3 MD, Istanbul Medipol University, Department of Psychology, Istanbul, TURKEY
4 Association for Contextual Behavioral Sciences- Turkey Chapter, Istanbul, TURKEY
5 PhD, The University of North Carolina at Greensboro (UNC Greensboro), Department of Counseling, Greensboro, NC, USA
6 MD, Adiyaman University, Department of Psychiatry, Adiyaman, TURKEY
7 PhD, Mehmet Akif Ersoy University, Department of Counseling, Burdur, TURKEY
8 PhD, Ağrı İbrahim Çeçen University, Department of Psychology, Ağrı, TURKEY
9 University of Leicester, Department of Neuroscience, Psychology and Behavior, UNITED KINGDOM
10 MD, Bakirkoy Mazhar Osman Mental Health and Neurological Diseases Training and Research Hospital, Psychiatry, Bakirkoy, Istanbul, TURKEY
11 PhD, Bartin University, Department of Psychology, Bartin, TURKEY
12 PhD, Sakarya University, Department of Counseling, Sakarya, TURKEY
13 PhD, Batman University, Department of Educational Sciences, Batman, TURKEY
* Corresponding Author


Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) became a pandemic and is causing unprecedented biopsychosocial, spiritual and economic issues across the world while mostly affecting unprivileged populations. Turkey has gradually implemented new regulations, which slowly affected the entire country and increased the need for mental health services disproportionally. We conducted a comprehensive literature review on mental health in Turkey during COVID-19. There was no well-grounded peer-reviewed manuscripts or projects utilized a framework. Therefore, we wrote this manuscript to provide a conceptual framework grounded in ecological systems theory, acceptance and commitment therapy, and community-based participatory action research to introduce contextually evidence-based online mental health services: hotline, psychiatric interview, counseling, and Read-Reflect-Share group bibliotherapy. The framework aims to (1) address biopsychosocial spiritual and economic issues, (2) enhance wellbeing, and (3) empower the mental health profession in research and practice. Our preliminary findings and clinical experience indicated that the proposed framework and interventions derived from the framework enhanced wellbeing and decreased psychopathological symptoms in experimental group compared to control groups. Based on the preliminary analysis, most of the online, phone based, or face-to-face mental health services introduced in this manuscript were highly recommended by the participants to be provided to general public during and after COVID-19. Mental health professionals and authorities can use the proposed framework and interventions to develop interventions and research in order to alleviate pandemic-based biopsychosocial spiritual and economic issues and enhance wellbeing.


This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Article Type: Original Article


ELECTRON J GEN MED, 2020 - Volume 17 Issue 6, Article No: em254

Publication date: 04 Jun 2020

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Article Downloads: 9538

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