The interrelation of post-trauma stress disorders with reactive and personal anxiety
More details
Hide details
Moscow State University of Education, Moscow, Russia
Institute of Humanities of Kant Baltic Federal University, Kaliningrad, Russia
Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russia
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow, Russia
Ulyanovsk State University, Ulyanovsk, Russia
Publish date: 2018-11-18
Electron J Gen Med 2018;15(6):em85
The relationship of situational (reactive) and personal anxiety in the sample of respondents with post-trauma stress disorder (PTSD) has been considered in the article. The study found that a significant level of situational anxiety and an average level of personal anxiety is observed in respondents with post-trauma stress disorder.

The survey and testing of respondents was conducted on the basis of their voluntary and anonymous participation among the staff of public authorities and law enforcement bodies. Clinical, psychopathological and statistical research methods were used in this work. While conducting a psychopathological survey, the Mississippi scale (MS), military and civilian variants, the severity questionnaire for psychopathological symptoms (AFPS), and the scale for assessing the level of reactive and personal anxiety (Charles D. Spilberger, Yu. L. Khanin) were used to determine the qualitative and quantitative parameters. The levels of reactive and personal anxiety were determined on a scale: up to 30 points - low anxiety; from 31 to 45 points - moderate anxiety; 46 points or more - high anxiety. The statistical processing of research results included the calculation of the arithmetic mean value for the quantitative (M) and qualitative (P) indices and their errors (m and p). When comparing the data obtained in groups and subgroups, the Student’s t-test was used, while the correlation analysis of interrelationships - the Spearman correlation coefficient was used. The sample comprised respondents with signs that meet the diagnostic criteria for PTSD (ICD-10 \ DSM-R).

The manifestation of the influence of the experienced psychological trauma on the level of anxiety is: an increased heart rate; Blanchet syndrome; a nervous condition; tension of all groups of muscles; feeling a sense of guilt; a feeling of fever followed by shivers; long confusion; insomnia; migraine; uncontrollable anger. The symptoms of anxiety persist and accumulate, at the time of a stressful situation, and after its resolution, contributing to a decrease in performance, fatigue and exhaustion. In addition, the results of the study indicate that anxiety and its level plays an important role, both in clinical findings and in the pathogenesis of PTSD. At the same time, differences were found among men and women. Men with PTSD are characterized by an increase in the level of situational anxiety as the severity of the disorder increases. Women are characterized by a moderate level of situational anxiety, regardless of the severity of the disorder. For both male and female subjects, high indices of personal anxiety are more significant than situational in the development of PTSD of different severity levels.

Anxiety and its level, plays an important role both in clinical findings and in the pathogenesis of PTSD. At the same time, differences were found among men and women. Men with PTSD are characterized by an increase in the level of situational anxiety as the severity of the disorder increases. Women are characterized by a moderate level of situational anxiety, regardless of the severity of the disorder. High indices of personal anxiety are more significant for both male and female subjects than situational one in the development of PTSD of different severity levels. The level of personal anxiety in men increased as the severity of PTSD increased. In women, the high level of anxiety increased with increasing severity of the disorder and stabilized with severe PTSD. Most women and men with PTSD are characterized by a high level of personal anxiety. Moreover, the prevalence of women with a high level of personal anxiety in comparison with men is essential with a mild severity of the disorder. With a moderate degree of the disorder, the differences in the proportion of men and women with a high level of personal anxiety are practically insignificant, and in case of a severe degree of the disorder, their proportion levels off, reaching 100%, both among men and women.

1. Afifi M. Gender differences in mental health. Singapore Med. J. 2007;48(5):385-391. PMid:17453094.
2. Agaibi CE, Wilson JP. Trauma PTSD and Resilience: A Review of the Literature. Trauma Violence Abuse. 2005;6(3):195-121. https://doi.org/10.1177/152483... PMid:16237155.
3. Aleksandrovsky YuA. Border mental disorders: a guide for doctors. Moscow: GEOTAR-Media; 2007.
4. Andryushchenko AV. Post-traumatic stress disorder in situations of loss of object of extraordinary importance. Psychiatry and psychopharmacotherapy. 2000;4:104-109.
5. Avedisova AS. Psychopharmacotherapy of patients with post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry. 2009;109(12):46-49.
6. Boelen P. Intolerance of uncertainty and emotional distress following the death of a loved one. Anxiety Stress Coping. 2010;23(4):471-478. https://doi.org/10.1080/106158... PMid:20455126.
7. Boelen PA, Huntjens RJ, van Deursen DS, van den Hout MA. Autobiographical memory specificity and symptoms of complicated grief, depression, and posttraumatic stress disorder following loss. Journal Behav. Ther. Exp. Psychiatry. 2010; 41(4):331-337. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbte... PMid:20394916.
8. Bryazgunov IP, Mikhailov AN, Stolyarova EV. Posttraumatic stress disorder in children and adolescents. Moscow: PH “Medpraktika-M”; 2008.
9. Bundalo NL. Chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Krasnoyarsk: KrasSMU; 2009.
10. Christiansen DM, Elklit A. Risk factors predict post- traumatic stress disorder differently in men and women. Ann. Gen. Psychiatry. 2008;7:1-37. https://doi.org/10.1186/1744-8... PMid:19017412 PMCid:PMC2603007.
11. Delahanty DL. Toward the Predeployment Detection of Risk for PTSD. Am. Journal Psychiatry. 2011;168(1): 9-11. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.a... PMid:21205813.
12. Dmitrieva TB, Drozdov FZ, Kogan BM. Clinical neurochemistry in psychiatry. Moscow:RIO SSC SSP them. V.P. Serbian; 1998.
13. Dohrenwend BP, Neria Y, Turner JB. Positive tertiary appraisals and posttraumatic stress disorder in U. S. male veterans of the war in Vietnam: the roles of positive affirmation, positive reformulation, and defensive denial. Journal Consult. Clin. Psychol. 2005;72(3):417-433. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-0... PMid:15279526.
14. Elklit A, Reinholt N, Nielsen LH. Posttraumatic stress disorder among bereaved relatives of cancer patients. Journal Psychosoc. Oncol. 2010;28(4):399-412. https://doi.org/10.1080/073473... PMid:20623415.
15. Feldner MT, Monson CM, Friedman MJ. Critical Analysis of Approaches to Targeted PTSD Prevention: Current Status and Theoretically Derived Future Directions. Behav. Modif. 2007;31(1):80-116. https://doi.org/10.1177/014544... PMid:17179532.
16. Gordon JG, Asmundson PD. PTSD Diagnostic Criteria: Understanding Etiology and Treatment. Am. Journal Psychiatry. 2009;166(6):726-732. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.a... PMid:19487404.
17. Horowitz MJ. Stress response syndromes and their treatment. V.Hamilton & D.Warburton (Eds.). Human stress and cognition. New York: Wiley; 1980.
18. Jind L, Elklit A, Christiansen D. Cognitive schemata and processing among parents bereaved by infant death. Journal Clin. Psychol. Med. Settings. 2010;17(4):366-377. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10880... PMid:21110073.
19. Kaplan GI, Sadok BJ. Clinical Psychiatry: Moscow; 1994.
20. Kitaev-Smyk LA. Post-traumatic stress disorder - are they due to an unsatisfied thirst for revenge, or an unquenchable thirst for love? Questions of psychology of extreme situations. 2008;2:2-16.
21. Krasnov VN. Affective spectrum disorders. Moscow: Practical medicine; 2011.
22. Кrent D, Melhem N, Donohoe B, Walker M. The Incidence and Course of Depression in Bereaved Youth 21 Months After the Loss of a Parent to Suicide, Accident, or Sudden Natural Death. Am. Journal Psychiatry. 2009;166:786-794.
23. Kuo JR, Linehan MM. Disentangling emotion processes in borderline personality disorder: physiological and self- reported assessment of biological vulnerability, baseline intensity, and reactivity to emotionally evocative stimuli. Journal Abnorm. Psychol. 2009;118:531-544. https://doi.org/10.1037/a00163... PMid:19685950 PMCid:PMC4277483.
24. Litvintsev SV, Snedkov AM, Reznik EV. Combat mental injury: a guide for doctors. Moscow: Medicine; 2005.
25. Möller-Leamküller AM. Stress in society and stress-related disorders in terms of gender differences. Social and Clinical Psychiatry. 2004;4:5-11.
26. Narov MYu, Semke VYa, Aksenov MM. Early diagnosis and psychotherapeutic correction of PTSD as prevention of comorbid alcohol addiction in combatants. Siberian Journal of Psychiatry and Narcology. 2007;1(44):69-71.
27. Nechiporenko VV, Shamrey VK. Suicidology: issues of the clinic, diagnosis and prevention. St. Petersburg: Military Medical Academy; 2007.
28. Nemeroff CB, Bremner JD, Foa EB. Posttraumatic stress disorder: A state-of-the-science review. Journal of Psychiatric Research. 2006;40:1-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsy... PMid:16242154.
29. Nikityuk DB, Miroshkin DV. Immune structures with increased physical exertion. Morphology. 2008;133(2):85-90.
30. Nikityuk DB, Miroshkin DV, Bukavneva NS. Clinical and anthropological approaches. Morphological statements. 2008;1(2):56-62.
31. Reznik AM. Subjective assessment by the military of conditions and methods for reducing combat stress. Journal of Neurologists and Psychiatrist. 2009;12:38-40.
32. Shcherbakova OI. Formation managers stress management skills. Modern training and coaching: new opportunities in business and education. Moscow:Russian University of Economics; 2017.
33. Shcherbakova OI, Chernykh AK, Balahanova DK, Midova VO. Stress control practices for mental balance improvement in academic sports. Teoriya i Praktika Fizicheskoy Kultury. 2018;9(1):22-23.
34. Snedkov EV. The problem of nosological independence post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry. 2009;12:8-11.
35. Sukiasyan SG. On some aspects of the dynamics of post-traumatic stress disorders in combatants. Social and Clinical Psychiatry. 2009;1:12-18.
36. Tadevosyan A. Stressology as a theoretical concept of stress disorders (analytical review). Russian Psychiatric Journal. 2006;6:86-92.
37. Tarabrina NV. Workshop on the psychology of post-traumatic stress. St. Petersburg: Peter; 2009.
38. Tsygankov BD, Dzhangildin YuT, Schetinina EA. Psycho-psychotherapeutic correction of mental disorders resulting from stress. Siberian Journal of Psychiatry and Narcology. 2006;4(1):301-302.
39. Voloshin VM. (2004). Typology of chronic post-traumatic stress disorder. Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry. 2004;1:17-23.
40. Wasserman LI, Ababkov VA, Trifonova EA. Coping with stress: theory and psychodiagnostics. St. Petersburg: Speech; 2010.
41. Wilcox HC, Storr CL, Breslau N. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Suicide Attempts in a Community Sample of Urban American Young Adults. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry. 2009;66(3):305-311. https://doi.org/10.1001/archge... PMid:19255380 PMCid:PMC6003890.